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Sunday, July 29, 2012

Sewa Mobil Di Cirebon

Cirebon adalah kota yang sangat istimewa dan penuh dengan wisata wisata yang sangat menakjubkan, Beberapa lokasi yang menarik dari kota ini bisa menjadi tujuan wisata anda dan keluarga. Apabila anda berada di kota cirebon dan ingin mengunjungi beberapa wisata janganlah lupa untuk sewa mobil cirebon yang siap mengantarkan anda berkeliling kota Cirebon, agar Anda bisa menikmati suasana liburan dengan lebih maksimal.

Rental Mobil Cirebon menyediakan jasa layanan persewaan mobil untuk wisata dalam kota dan Luar Kota, pernikahan, Paket sewa harian atau per jam dengan harga yang relatif murah. Dengan rental mobil kami, anda dapat menikmati kenikmatan dalam berkeliling-keliling ke mana saja sesuai dengan tujuan anda.

Dengan unit mobil Toyota Avanza dan Daihatsu Xenia Xi Plus thn 2009 & 2010, di layani dengan sopir yg ramah, sopan dan berpengalaman, serta mampu berbahasa asing dan mengerti tempat wisata di Cirebon maupun luar Kota Cirebon, siap mengantarkan perjalanan anda menjadi nyaman dan berkesan.

Di Cirebon sewa mobil merupakan salah satu alternatif pilihan rental mobil yang bisa Anda coba. Biasanya orang memilih Rental xenia, Selain memudahkan perjalanan, xenia juga praktis tanpa harus terburu-buru dan merasa gerah dengan suasana angkutan umum yang cenderung tidak nyaman. Pilih rental xenia sekarang, dan dapatkan perjalanan yang menyenangkan bersama keluarga dan orang-orang yang anda cintai.

Friday, July 27, 2012

CSS 1

CSS 1Choosing Self Storage Facilities

Most of us locate inside us a predicament in which we have accumulated too many belongings to suit home. This is how find that important to hire the self-storage product especially for auto storage. If you're searching for the self-storage system you must invest time to help it become in the high quality self storage product such as Colorado Springs self storage facilities. There are lots of self storage areas from which to choose throughout the region but they are not every equivalent. Several establishments will offer a lot more possibilities and security when compared with another facility. A good self storage facility cost a tad bit more every month however the peace of mind you'll have will be definitely worth the extra expense. Their list of the house goods that may be saved includes every object close to the house like the furnishings, backyard equipments, pastime gadgets and even auto storage.

The first thing that you should take into account in choosing any self storage facility may be the spot with the facility. Many people create a lot of outings both to and from their particular self storage unit, which means you would want to locate one which is as near to your house as possible. Keeping the system close to home is crucial, however knowing that your property is within a secure storage facility is more crucial.

The subsequent consideration when selecting the self storage spot may be the safety from the facility. A new minimum-security storage facility ought to be fenced everywhere in the home. It ought to be well lighted as well as vibrant for those times when you need to make a visit after dark. The facility needs to have some kind of movie surveillance program in place. The actual entrance doors to the individual products ought to be heavy gauge material having a large measure hasp to your 'lock'.

Business/Online

Business OnlineBusiness Card Design Tips

As custom Business Cards vendor, I can very easily place developments inside trade. For around per year, the hottest pattern inside the more expensive high-class minute card buy and sell is the Silk/UV spot mixture.

Silk Business Cards is really a laminated card stock that will imparts the smooth sleek consistency on the credit card's floor. The conclusion is flat as well as the lamination helps make the credit card quite strong and durable. Surprisingly, they tend to be writable along with pen as well as dog pen. This enables your giver or device of the minute card to publish a note, contact number or perhaps whatever for the back or front. We've seen silk charge cards vary in color tremendously from 10 indicate Sixteen position (rather thin in order to fairly large).

Spot UV can be a relatively new treatment process which has mostly absorbed you brought up print enterprise. Throughout UV spot, the cardboard consumer determines wherever for the credit card he'd just like a gloss to become utilized. The particular UV healed stand out treatment method may be used on logos and also other elements of design in addition to textual content. It may be placed onto each party with the card. These types of glossed components handle a rather lifted 3-D influence.

Though there are a few technical constraints, customers may possibly combine or perhaps employing various method to effects for example embossing along with Foil Business Cards. The actual turn-around creation moment is actually more than together with normal cards including flat or even polished charge cards.

Tendencies in business cards appear and vanish nevertheless this one exhibits simply no manifestation of slowing down. UV spot can easily emphasize your current business's most crucial information and thus achieve your current customers' attention. This specific, all things considered, is why all of us swap business cards, to accumulate new business.

Thursday, July 26, 2012

BestWeb/Online

Best WebChoosing the Best Web Analytics Software

With this web analytics review, we will let you know on how web visitor tracking tools have become any core advertising tool for all businesses nowadays. By concentrating on your best specialized business, niche can identify expert standing of their specialized niche by simply finding that targeted website visitor. Tracking employing analytic tools or software is the moist part of this web analytics review, out of your tender should go.

There is a real-time factor absent from many internet marketing strategies. What is the face carrying out? Tracking programs expose this specific important data.

The main basis for using the best web analytics tools is that it is vital to understand why website visitors desire to view your site along with exactly what keeps them. When some depart, why do these people keep? The achievements of your company are influenced by knowing about it of your browsing customers seeking services and products such as yours.

Visitor tracking tools enable site proprietors to truly watch how their particular website visitors browse. The advantage is the fact that negative website styles for example * why ended up being that missed, the design had not been completed, as well as removed within 60 seconds and don't to send back, may be avoided each day.

Then when critiquing accessible analytics software comparison, make sure to look at the software requirements. You won't want to fall in love with software that will need the LINUX if your web site resides on the Windows platform. If you're searching with a hosted service, guarantee the costs go with your current regular monthly price range. If you're looking at any self-hosted package, look into the installment directions.

And remember, due to the fact analytics could possibly get overwhelming, you may need to supply the person with all the data he will actually need to create organization judgments.

Comp and Save#10

Comp and Save#10The Popular Lexmark Printer Ink Cartridges

At some time ago, Lexmark introduced fresh models along with Printer Ink Cartridges that have remarkably became popular in mere a modest amount of time amongst residence people, business and enormous businesses. Lexmark printer ink cartridges are produced for sale in a couple of various types. The foremost is Original Equipment Manufacturer Ink Cartridges. The other the first is refurbished printer ink cartridges. The first one is the high priced unique printer ink cartridges made by Lexmark. Another could be the cheap remade appropriate ink cartridges will are sold at a lesser cost.

With Lexmark laser printers along with printer ink cartridges, you could expect vibrant, lush, and highly detailed producing at rates you can afford. It is now a top builder, manufacturer and supplier of stamping along with imaging options with regard to houses and also office buildings since that cut scarves with IBM.

Lexmark carries a plan that gives the discounted price about ink cartridges in case shoppers return them for you to Lexmark after a single make use of. People that are not able to send them back tend to be disobeying the law and can encounter law suit when they re-fill a tube, deliver this to your 3rd party refilled or just don't return it in order to Lexmark. For individuals who getting printer ink cartridges in the UK or anywhere else are encouraged to investigate procedures all around the recycling as well as fill up of such essential items prior to participating in this exercise.

Consequently if you are utilizing Lexmark ink cartridges, utilize your own printer ink cartridges simply by selecting the most appropriate laser printers along with good quality printer ink cartridges. As long as all of us use laser printers inside our properties along with places of work, printer ink cartridges would find an important position in our lifestyles.

Movers/Online

Movers OnlineMovers Online present you with a complete home furniture treatment service inside of Brisbane. The real Movers Online team associated with experienced pieces of furniture revivalists are usually totally set up that may help you move property, move apartment or perhaps direct you towards you move. Regardless of whether you need community movers, a great immediate removal as well as more moving boxes, Movers Online is actually below to help you.

Long distance movers is included and intensive, and it requires a thorough program with the proper Long distance movers companies to be executed properly. Allied is really a superior long distance moving organization mainly because of the sources all around the nation. The professionals give your very best to make sure that you need not during your long distance move.

Many of us take great pride in being a long distance moving company who is presently there for you personally throughout the trip. The Allied specialists will give you advising along with direction about the very best long distance moving services for your move requirements.

International moving companies or even international movers are usually forwards that will help people in their own move or international move. There are those which usually give planning, transport and even packaging!

There are available online organizations that supply companies such as tips about moving, cost quotes as well as destination details. Particular companies have linkages along with trustworthy airline carriers along with companies upon shipping. The motion is really supervised to diminish the time connected with transit and expenses.

Occasionally the real move is due to the necessity to find a larger workplace while throughout other circumstances it might be because of the fact you would like to move to a different a part of community. In spite of the reason behind the move, it is usually useful to have a game plan ready which means that your go ahead may go since effortlessly as well as being uneventful as possible. The following is an expedient office relocation record you can keep inside your back bank account and this also record will help to make you relocation a very easy as well as effective one.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Fly Fishing Article

Fly Fishing ArticleFly fishing is surely an angling manner in which a man-made 'fly' can be used to trap seafood. The fly can be throw employing a fly rod, bait casting reel, along with specific heavy series. Casting a nearly weightless fly as well as 'lure' demands spreading tactics considerably not the same as other styles involving sending your line. Fly anglers utilize side tied jigs which mimic normal invertebrates or other food bacteria, as well as 'lures' to impress your seafood in order to hit. TridentFlyFishing.com can be a destination to acquire fly fishing products and aLinklso apparel.

Fly fishing can be carried out inside fresh or salt water. North Americans normally differentiate freshwater fishing in between cold-water varieties (trout, fish, steelhead) and also warm-water varieties, significantly bass. You will find 3 choices for your convenience of fishing.

1 Scientific Anglers Sharkskin Ultimate Trout Taper

Scientific Anglers Sharkskin Ultimate Trout Taper has involved 3M's innovative micro replication technology within their brand new Sharkskin fly collection. Using precise duplicating constructions in which mirror natural surfaces, Sharkskin provides you with the very best of the two mother nature along with technology. Their prolonged front taper gives clean shipping at any kind of length, doing work just like a double taper inside near along with doing your best from long mileage.

2 Scientific Anglers Mastery Headstart

Scientific Anglers Mastery Headstart specified for to make available top quality fly traces for you to novice as well as more advanced anglers. Scientific Anglers Mastery Headstart have a compact taper style, perfect for many spreading distances. Scientific Anglers Mastery Headstart get reduced storage central which aids in collection healing and therefore are a half series measurement hefty to assist in spreading today's rapidly activity rods. The excess body weight likewise helps the brand new angler have the fly fishing rod weight, an important part of studying appropriate throwing techniques.

3 Scientific Anglers Mastery Bass Bug Taper

The Scientific Anglers Mastery Bass Bug Taper is the greatest we have now discovered. It's the ideal design and style regarding bass fishing having a powerful head to produce big, hefty or wind resistant bass flies. This particular bass bug line possess an extended rear taper with regard to easier length spreading with greater precision.

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Importance Of Business Signs

There are companies that possess the particular reason for supporting your company being top quality properly between your current potential prospects. Edge in the game in several other ways, which include with your brand name and quest assertion in brand-new and unique techniques. In some instances, you’re going to be capable to incorporate the logo and mission affirmation directly into industrial indications. These types of indications may be beyond your business, such as signs for a building lobby as well as these down the street nonetheless they are often utilized in your own signs which might be dangling inside of your business office. Why is that extremely important?

You need to direct folks appropriately externally of one's enterprise with the building directory signage and to your organization. Including your logo and mission assertion around the symptoms inside of your company, assist to further brand your company in the customer’s heads. Additionally, it may make it simpler so that you can close your sale. Usually, those firms that are going to help you with logos your business will make sure that will it is all totally associated, entirely externally for the within. They could also have some other strategies to marketing your business, various via customizing your own letterhead to getting various forms regarding advertising and marketing.

Even though it is not necessary so that you can model your company towards the extent in which it is one more Kleenex or Life saver brand name, that by no means is painful to have several identify reputation. (Resource: Commercial Signs by Blue Pond Signs) Regardless of whether you have which recognition near your home or maybe you are an Internet business, trying to deliver your business to your around the world foundation, ensure that you do this efficiently and regularly.

Sunday, July 8, 2012

Business Administration Degree

A business administration degree might be just about the most common choices by on the web individuals today. That gives us several advantages within the business entire world; understanding about organization can easily pretty much be employed in just about any industry, and it can help a person produce along with produce your own personal. In case you are trying to get a degree in business government, you'll be able to quickly think that the individual is established as well as devoted to bettering their lives and having his or her job to another level.

Finishing this particular degree online helps it be even better, particularly for that operating specialist. You're able to be employed in the security and luxury of your own home. You are not linked with school schedules or perhaps area; you can manage your own tempo and turn into as quickly as well as as gradual as you want. You will find that most of the people that are investing in this degree have full time work opportunities as well as require proper care of themselves. A web based education will even provide you with plenty of time to focus on the other jobs as well as requirements, making it the perfect place pertaining to getting a new bachelors diploma.

Debates get ensued from your concept of taking business administration on-line. Several have described that because it's quite passive and unbiased. They say that it does not supply the pupils some amount of answer ability as well as connection with other people, and being able to instill expert working associations is a aspect of enterprise. What you should uncover if you take this course on the internet is that there will be a great deal of on the web school room talks, you'll also find the opportunity speak with other pupils.

Due to vast range which business administration provides, on the web universities and colleges are actually providing many career fields that might concentrate on a selected element of enterprise. Should you be more directly into numbers and also analysis, financial as well as human resources could be the best choice. People who are great at product sales might have to go straight into entrepreneurship or even marketing and sales. In case your aim would be to grow to be a professional at some point, you'll want to try taking a little courses in project management and small business management. These are simply many of the sorts of courses that you can choose to use actually maximize your learning online.

Thursday, July 5, 2012

Explain the liabilities of a company secretary

Explain the liabilities of a company secretary

Hello dear friends here you will get Explain the liabilities of a company secretary. Liabilities of a company secretary can be divided into two categories: Business communication degree solutions
(A) Statutory Liabilities
              And
 (B) Contractual Liabilities

(A) Statutory Liabilities: Statutory liabilities derived from different relevant Acts including companies Act, Stamp Act, Income tax Act etc. statutory liabilities are as follows: Business communication degree solutions

1. Maintain the formalities during pre-incorporation stage
2. Arranging the statutory meeting within the stipulated time limit
3. Preparation of statutory report
4. Arranging the meeting of Board of Directors
5. Arranging the Annual General Meeting
6. Submitting Annual Returns to the Registrar of the companies
 7. Maintaining ‘Minute-book’
8. Taking initiative of the registration of the resolutions passed in different meetings
9. Ensuring proper stamping of the documents
10. Arranging the appointment of auditor in time
11. Maintains the register of the shareholders and debenture holders of the company
12. Taking initiative to pay the income tax in time
13. Not to take any loan without the approval of the Board of Directors
14. Not to secure any secret profit form the company etc.

(B) Contractual Liabilities: According to the agreement signed between the company and the secretary different types of liabilities imposed on the secretary. These liabilities are as follows: Business communication degree solutions

1. Accountable to the Board of Directors for duties
2. Maintaining the secrecy of the affairs of the company
3. Not to do anything beyond his/her capacity
4. Not to show any kind of negligence in performing the responsibility
5. Not to commit any fraudulent activity
6. Protect the interest of the company.
7. Obeying the terms and conditions of the service
8. Maintain the rules and procedures of the Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association, Act.

Explain the liabilities of a company secretary

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Tuesday, July 3, 2012

Right and power of a company secretary

Right and power of a company secretary

Hello dear frinds here you will get The right and power of a Company Secretary, Company Secretary Right, Company Secretary Power. Depending on the companies Act and condition of the agreement, rights of a company secretary can be classified into following types:
Business communication degree solutions
(A) Consequential rights
(B) Contractual rights
(C) Rights recognized by the companies Act.

(A) Consequential rights: Consequential rights of a company secretary are as follows: Business communication degree solutions
1. Control office functions: As the principal officer of the company the secretary has the right to control the office functions.

2. Negotiation: A company secretary also has the right to negotiate with third party on company affairs.

3. Sign contracts: As the agent of the company secretary can sign agreements or contracts.

4. Sign documents: As an important administrative officer the secretary of the company has the right to sign in the documents of the company.

5. Remuneration: A company secretary deserves logical remuneration from the company.

(B) Contractual rights: Contractual rights derive from the agreement between the company and the secretary. On the basis of the agreement the secretary can enjoy the following fights: Business communication degree solutions

1. Authority: On the basis of the agreement company secretary can exercise specific authority.

2. Implementation of agreement: Company secretary can implement the agreement by which he is appointed.

3. Termination of agreement: As per provision of the agreement the secretary has the right to terminate the agreement.

(C) Rights recognized by the companies act: Rights recognized by the companies act are as follows: Business communication degree solutions

1. Commencement of business: As per companies act the secretary has the right to sign the declaration of the commencement of business.

2. Sign annual return: Within 60 days of the Annual General Meeting (AGM) the company secretary has the right to sign Annual return of the company.

3. Making statements: On behalf of the company the secretary can make statements.

4. Preferential creditor: If the company goes to liquidation then the secretary can claim his/her dues prior to others.

5. Attend in the meeting: The secretary also enjoy the right to attend in the meetings of the company.

6. Declaration of solvency: In case of voluntary winding-up the company secretary has the right to sign the declaration of solvency.

Right and power of a company secretary

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Thursday, June 28, 2012

The functions or duties of a company secretary

The functions or duties of a company secretary

Hello dear friends here you will get the functions or duties of a company secretary. Friends you also get anther article about How a company secretary can be removed from this post? As an important person of the company a secretary has to perform various functions. Even before the incorporation of the company a secretary is appointed to conduct the promotional activates regarding the formation of the company.

The function or duties of a company secretary can be discussed in the following manner:
(A) Pre-incorporation functions
(B) Post-incorporation function
(C) Routine functions

(A) Pre-Incorporation function: Functions performed by the first secretary of a company before the incorporation of the company is known as the pre-incorporation functions. Generally following activates performed in pre-incorporation stage:
1. Functions regarding the registration of the company.
2. Drafting articles of association.
3. Drafting articles of association.
4. Collecting certificate of incorporation form the registrar of the companies.
5. Conducting meeting among the promoters.

(B) Post-incorporation Functions: Following functions are accomplished by a company secretary after the incorporation of the company:
1. Arranging the meeting of the board of directors.
2. Collection of the certificate of commencement.
3. Arranging the statutory meeting of the company.
4. Preparation of statutory report etc.

(C) Routine functions: Routine functions of a company secretary can be classified into following categories:
1. Functions relating to shareholders:
i. Circulation of the prospectus.
ii. Receiving application for shares.
iii. Checking applications
iv. Making calls and taking initiative to collect calls-in arrears.
v. Distribution of share certificates.
vi. Informing the shareholders regarding meeting by notice.
vii. Declaration of dividend.

2. Functions regarding directors:
i. Arranging the meetings of board of directors (BOD)
ii. Preparation of minutes
iii. Implement the decisions of the Board meeting.
iv. Informing relevant matters to the BOD.

3. Functions regarding the meetings of the company:
i. Arranging different types of meetings.
ii. Preparation of agenda of meeting.
iii. Providing notice to the members
iv. Assist to run the meeting.
v. preparation of the minute book.
vi. Informing the members regarding the resolution passed in the meeting.

4. Advisory functions:
i. Providing relevant information to the top management to assist routine administrative functions.
ii. Assist policy formulation.
iii. Provide advice on the raising of funds
iv. Provide direction for negotiating third parties.
v. Assist in drafting agreement.

5. Liaison functions: Besides the above specific functions a company secretary maintain link among the concerned parties of the company. A company secretary in treated as the principal liaison officer of the company.

The functions or duties of a company secretary

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

How a company secretary can be removed from this post?

How a company secretary can be removed from this post?

Hello dear friends here you will get The removal procedure of a company secretary,How a company secretary can be removed from this post?Like any other employee of the company the ‘secretary’ can also be removed under specific grounds. For removal of a secretary prescribed procedure is followed. Business Communication Degree Solution.

For the following reasons a company secretary can be removed:
1. Disqualification: If it is proved that the secretary is not properly qualified to conduct his/her duties then such a secretary can be removed.

2. Disobedience: If a company secretary failed to work in compliance with the direction of the board of directors then he/she can be removed from the post on the ground of disobedience.

3. Negligence: on the ground of negligence to statutory duties a company secretary can be removed.

4. Moral disorder: If any moral disorder of the company secretary is identified then his/her service can be terminated.

5. Disablement: A company secretary also can be removed for any permanent disablement.

6. Winding-up of the company: the service of the secretary will automatically terminated if the company starts to wind-up.

How a company secretary can be removed from this post?

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The procedure regarding the appointment of a company secretary

The procedure regarding the appointment of a company secretary

Hello dear friends here you will get The procedure regarding the appointment of a company secretary. For public limited companies appointment of secretary is made compulsory by the companies act. A company secretary can be appointed by the following ways: Business communication degree solutions.

1. By Promoters: To accomplish the promotional work of the company the promoters appoint the first secretary of the company. The name of the first secretary is mentioned in the articles of association of the company. The board of directors ratified the appointment of the first secretary at the first meeting of board of directors (after the incorporation) with retrospective effect from the date of appointment.

2. By the first board of directors: The company secretary can be appointed by the directors at the first meeting of the board of directors. Whether the first secretary will be removed or reappointed, completely depends on the opinion of the members of board of directors.

3. From the directors: The board of directors (BOD) can appoint a director as the secretary of the company.

 4. Professional secretary: The board of directors can appoint a professional secretary as the ‘secretary’ of the company. An agreement mentioning terms and condition of the service is signed between the company and the person appointed as the secretary of the company.

These are the different methods followed for appointing the company secretary.

The procedure regarding the appointment of a company secretary

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Thursday, June 21, 2012

Qualifications of a company secretary

Qualifications of a company secretary

Hello dear friends here you will get Qualifications of a company secretary or Requirements of a company secretary. A company secretary must have qualifications prescribed in the companies Act and also should achieve required attributes to perform the functions of a secretary.

Qualifications of a company secretary can be divided into two categories:
(A) General qualifications
(B) Professional qualifications

(A) General qualifications: To perform the important functions of a secretary one should have the following general qualifications:

1. Attentive: A company secretary must be attentive and good listener.

2. Adaptability: Another important attribute of a company secretary is adaptation power. To ensure the interest of the company the company secretary need to adopt with different situation.

3. Boldness: To perform his/her duty and to uphold the interest of the company, a company secretary needs to have boldness. Boldness is specially required in negotiating with third parties.

4. Careful: In performing the duties a company secretary needs to be careful.

5. Cooperative: A company secretary is treated as the principal liaison officer, thus to ensure desired coordination among the concerned parties he/she must be cooperative.

6. Polite: for better acceptance and successful public relation a company secretary should be polite in nature.

7. Punctuality: A company secretary also should be punctual.

8. Responsible: As a company secretary one has to perform various important functions. The interest of the company can be hampered if any irresponsible step taken by the company secretary. Thus responsibility is an indispensable step taken by the company secretary. Thus responsibility is an indispensable attribute of a company secretary.

9. Reliable: another major quality of a company secretary is reliability.

10. Honesty: Last of all, but not the least, a company secretary must be honest. Other qualifications can be meaningless without honesty.

(B) Professional Qualifications: Besides the discussed general qualifications a company secretary must possess some professional qualifications to run the office of secretary. Professional qualifications can be listed as follows:

1. Required educational qualification: A company secretary must have educational qualification as required by the company. Besides qualification in business education a company secretary also need to have qualification on secretarial science.

2. Efficiency in shorthand: To take dictation and to maintain the minute book a company secretary must be efficient in shorthand.

3. Efficiency in typing: A company secretary need to type different official documents on a regular basis, thus he/she also should be efficient in typing.

4. Efficiency in computer operation: In modern days a company secretary has to handle computer to receive and to send messages thus efficiency in computer operations has become an indispensable quality of a company secretary.

5. Proficiency in language: To communicate with the external parties and to maintain routine communication a company secretary must have proficiency in written and spoken form of language. Besides the own language a company secretary need to have proficiency in English language.

6. Knowledge regarding the company affairs: As a company secretary one should have detail knowledge on the company affairs.

7. Knowledge regarding company law: Knowledge regarding company law is treated as a ‘sine-qua-non’ for a company secretary. To conduct the routine functions and to maintain the proceedings of a meeting a company secretary must have in-depth knowledge of company law.

8. Knowledge of other laws: A company secretary also should have sound knowledge regarding contact law, Insurance Act. And other laws relating to the affairs of the company.

9. Efficiency in arranging meeting: As the secretary of a company one has to arrange different types of meeting on a regular basis throughout his/her tenure of service. Thus detail knowledge regarding the holding of meetings must be possessed by the company secretary.

10. Efficiency in office management: A company secretary also should have knowledge of office management.

11. Efficiency in Accounting and finance: To handle the company affairs a company secretary must have efficiency in Accounting and finance.

To be a successful company secretary one should have a clear concept regarding the very ‘nature of business’ of the company.

Qualifications of a company secretary

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Evaluate the legal position of a company secretary

Evaluate the legal position of a company secretary

Hello dear friends here you will get Evaluate the legal position of a company secretary. The post of the company secretary is created and defined by the companies Act. Thus company secretary has legal position in the company.

In the companies Act and in verdicts of different cases legal position of a company secretary have explained in the following manner:

1. Officer of the company: According to section of the companies act. 1994 secretary is an ‘officer’ of the company.

2. Servant of the company: in the case ‘Barnet Hoars & Co. vs. South London Tramways Co.’ the honorable judge treated secretary as a servant of the company. The secretary as a servant will perform under the supervision of the Board of Directors.

3. Agent of the company: If the Board of Directors delegates authority then the secretary can act as an agent of the company. As an agent the company secretary can negotiate with third parties regarding signing of agreement.

4. Coordinator of the company: A company secretary also acts as a coordinator. The secretary maintains link between concerned parties.

5. Adviser of the company: Having detail knowledge in commerce and company affairs the secretary play vital role in providing expert advice to the top management.

From the above discussion it is clear that, the legal position of a company secretary can be viewed form different dimension.

Evaluate the legal position of a company secretary

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Thursday, June 14, 2012

What is company secretary?

What is company secretary?

Hello dear friends here you will get What is company secretary? and Define company secretary. Unlike a private secretary the status of a company secretary is legally defined. The person who holds the position of the secretary of a company can be termed as ‘company secretary’.
Indian companies act, 1956 (amended, 1974), defines a secretary as “Any individual possessing the prescribed qualifications appointed to perform the duties which may be performed by a secretary under this act and any other ministerial or administrative duties.”

In the words of Prof. sen & Mitra, “The secretary is an officer of the company having specified duties.

Prof. R. Pal and J. S. Korlahalli stated that, “He (Secretary) acts as a vital link between the company, Board of directors, shareholders and the Government and other regulating agencies.”

From the above definitions following features of a company secretary can be identified:
i. has a legal position.
ii. Duties specified by the law.
iii. Should have appropriate qualification.
iv. Link among concerned parties.

Thus it can be said that the person who appointed as a secretary in compliance with the companies Act., performing prescribed duties and maintaining link among the stakeholders can be labeled as ‘company secretary’.

What is company secretary?

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The importance of a secretary

The importance of a secretary

Hello dear friends here you will get the importance of a secretary. As work load of executives increases, the importance of secretarial function also increases considerably, with the dramatic improvement of communication system the world become a global village.

No individual or firm can expect to gain competitive advantage without concentrating on the external communication. As a result in a modern organization secretary is not treated as a receptionist or a liaison officer, rather he/she is an indispensable part of the management.

In the words of R. Pal and J. S. Korlahalli, “The position (of secretary) is considerably changed now; the secretary has gained the confidence of the management and has come to be recognized as the principal officer of the company.”

The importance of a secretary can be discussed in the following manner:
1. Information collection: A private secretary or a company secretary who ever it is, the position of the secretary become extremely important for both individual and firm. One of the major reasons is secretary is that person who collect and preserve all relevant information and provide it in time to the concerned parties.

2. Making policies: Secretary of a modern firm is not busy with only steno typing or taking dictation. He is fully associated with the formulation of long-range and short-term corporate policies and programmers.

 3. Providing advice: As a qualified person having knowledge about various area of commerce, secretary also play important role by providing advice to the top management.

4. Organize meeting: In arranging meeting the role of secretary has immense important to the firm. In the following way secretary play significant role in arranging meeting:

i. Preparing Agenda
ii. Providing Notice
iii. Preserving minute book
iv. Preparation of reports etc.

5. Raising funds: In a modern company secretary is also involved in the process of raising funds from external sources. Secretary assists to prepare ‘prospectus’ which is disclosed for public issues of shares.

6. Transfer of shares: The process of share transfer is also assisted by the secretary.

7. Assist in making appointment schedule: Appointment schedule of the executive or of the employer also prepared by a secretary.

8. Negotiating business purchases: In case of business purchases, mergers, and etc secretary assist considerably by taking part in the negotiation with concerned practices.

9. Correspondence with stakeholders: Secretary bridges the gap between the stakeholders of the firm, viz. shareholders, directors, creditors, financial institutions, government agencies etc.

10. Efficiency: by establishing link among the concerned parties secretary ensure coordination, which ultimately increase the overall efficiency of the firm.

Besides these secretary also files different types of documents to the registrar of companies in compliance with the companies act.

The importance of a secretary

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Friday, June 8, 2012

Advantages and disadvantages of graphical representation in a report

Advantages and disadvantages of graphical representation in a report

Hello dear friends here you will get The advantage or merits and disadvantage or demerits of graphical representation in a report Advantages of report, Bangladeshi Business Communication Book, Business Report Writing, Disadvantages of report, Free PDF book, Honours Business communication book.

There is an old saying “a picture is worth a thousand words,” – that is use of pictures and graphs not only enhance the outlook of the report- but also make the report more meaningful and understandable. In the words of Lesikar and Pettit, “graphic aids are any form of illustration.

They supplement words, present minor details, emphasis key points, and improve the reports appearance.”

Advantages/merits of graphical representation in a report:
1. Greater acceptance:
Use of different types of graphs makes the report more meaningful and accordingly acceptance of the report increased.

2. Reduce cost: Sometimes use of pictures helps to limit the discussion which reduces cost of the report.

3. Attractive: Sometimes people lose their interest in reading long reports. But use of bar diagram, pie charts, photographs etc. make the report more attractive, which helps the audience to hold interest.

4. Promote goodwill: An illustrative report not only easily understandable but it also enhance the goodwill of the organization.

5. Helps in decision making: Usually executives have not much time to go through the whole report. For this reason an executive summary is included in the formal reports. In addition to executive summary graphs and charts help the executives to take prompt Decision.

Disadvantages/demerits of graphical representation in a report.
 Demerits of graphical representation are as follows:
1. Time consuming: Preparation of graphs and charts increases the completion time of the report.

2. Special knowledge: Graphs helps easy understanding but to prepare graphs an individual need to have special knowledge.

3. Misuse of graphs: Sometimes graphs and charts are used just to m are the report more colorful. But inappropriate use of graphs may create confusion.

Advantages and disadvantages of graphical representation in a report

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Thursday, June 7, 2012

Draft a weekly market report on the Coimbatore Market ‘Vegetable Market’

Draft a weekly market report on the Coimbatore Market ‘Vegetable Market'

Hello dear friends here you will get Draft a weekly market report on the Coimbatore Market ‘Vegetable Market’ of Introduction:
Title of the Report: Weekly market report on the ‘Vegetable Market’ of Coimbatore Market.
Market’s Name: Coimbatore
Market Nature of Trading: Wholesale
Location: Near Tamil Nadu, USA
Product: Vegetables
Duration of the survey: Feb. 07, 2006 to Feb. 13, 2006
Date of submission: Feb. 14, 2006

Introductory Statement: In the survey period comparatively high price observed. A frequent fluctuation of prices of different vegetables was another major feature of the market.

Body of the report: 
Supply of vegetables: During the survey period comparatively low level of supply has been recorded. In comparison to the previous week. Overall supply of vegetables was low.

 Reason for low supply: it is revealed that due to ‘heavy fog’ traffic jam created in the ferry-ghat. As a result loading-unloading seriously disturbed. It causes late-arrival of vegetables in the market, which ultimately leads to higher prices.

Lack of control: Despite market monitoring some mal-practices among the traders also being observed Causes for frequent fluctuations of prices are not logical in some cases.

Expectations: As winter progresses, supply of vegetable likely to increase and prices will tend to reduce in the next week.

Example of Market rates of vegetables:
Trend of price: At the beginning of the week prices of most of the vegetables were higher than those of end of the week.

Conclusion: Significant price fluctuation was the order of the week. The market price level is expected to be more stable in the next week as supply is likely to increase. Monitoring should be continued and loading-unloading facilities need to be improved.

Draft a weekly market report on the Coimbatore Market ‘Vegetable Market'

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The essential features of a market report

The essential features of a market report

Hello dear friends here you will get what factors should be considered in drafting a market report?Or, the essential features of a market report.

To be effective, a market report should considerer the following factors:
1. Determination of objective: Like any other report market report also should be prepared by fixing predetermined objectives. Specific objectives or purposes infect act as a guideline for the preparation of the report.

2. Selection of market: On which market research will be conducted that also should be fixed in advance.

3. Avoid personal biases: In preparing the market report the reporter must be aware of personal biases. Personal likings or disliking should not affect the findings of the report.

4. Specific format: As market report is very important for the preparation of marketing strategy, it must be prepare like a formal report.

5. Appropriate method of data collection: Depending on the nature of the market and location of the consumer’s appropriate method of data collection should be selected.

6. Sensitiveness of the market: While preparing the market report, the reporter needs to consider the degree of sensitiveness of the market.

7. Selection of time: The trend of market may fluctuate over time. Thus the selection of time of research may influence the findings of the report.

8. Recommendations: Recommendations is an essential part of any report, therefore like other formal reports a market report must include specific recommendations for the betterment of the marketing strategy.

The essential features of a market report

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Monday, June 4, 2012

What is market report?, The importance or advantages of market report

What is market report?, The importance or advantages of market report

Hello dear friends here you will get What is Market Report?, Define market report. The importance or advantages of market report.

The effectiveness of marketing activities depends on the proper evaluation of the components of markets. That is demand of a product, consumer’s attitudes towards the product; price level, competitor’s strategy etc. are the key factors which have strong influence on the marketing strategy of the marketing strategy of the company.

Thus market report plays a vital role in formulating the marketing strategies. The report which reveals the demand of a product, consumer’s attitude and the trend of other related factors is known as market report.

In other words, market report is an analysis of the key factors of the market.The importance or advantages of market report:

Market report is essential not only for the preparation of marketing strategy for existing products but it is also a precondition for the development of new products. Importance of market reports are as follows:

1. Demand forecasting: Through market report the demand for the products of the company can be estimated.

2. Idea about consumer’s attitude: Market survey, especially psychological research on market helps to identify the needs of the customers and attitude of the customers’ toward the products of the company.

3. To increase the market share: Through market report proper competitive strategies can be taken by the company which will help to increase the market share.

4. Select proper channel of distribution: Whether consumers are satisfied with the existing channel of distribution or not can be identified by the market report and accordingly necessary measures can be taken.

5. Fixation of right price: Market report also helps to fix appropriate prices of the products of the company.

6. Selection of right media for advertisement: Statues of the consumers, nature of the market, expectation of the buyers etc. can be evaluated through a market report, thus it become easier on the part of the executives to select the right media.

7. New product development: Wiliam Davido, rightly said, “……….. Great products are invented in the marketing departments of a company” but the idea of new product developed with the help of market reports.

8. Decision making: Market report facilitates all kinds of decision making of the marketing department.

What is market report?, The importance or advantages of market report

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Friday, June 1, 2012

Difference between formal and informal reports

Difference between formal and informal reports

Hello dear friends here you will get difference between formal and informal reportsor Distinguish between long and short report.

Formal reports are analytical in nature and follow specific format. On the other hand informal reports are short and used basically for routine functions of an organization.

Distinction or Differences between formal and informal reports are as follows:

Difference between formal and informal reports

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What is informational and analytical report?

What is informational and analytical report?

Hello dear friends here you will get what is informational and analytical report? Distinguish between informational and analytical report.

Informational report: informational reports include only presentation of information detailed discussion and analysis are not provided. These reports are small in size.

Analytical report: this type of report provides detailed discussion on the basis of analyzed data. Unlike informational report this type of report includes recommendations.

Differences between informational and analytical reports are as follows:

What is informational and analytical report?

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Thursday, May 31, 2012

What do you mean by informal report?

What do you mean by informal report?

Hello dear friend here you will get what do you mean by informal report? What is informal report?, Define informal report. Mention the features of informal report and you also get The important or uses of informal report.

Informal reports basically used for routine functions of an organization. Informal reports are widely used in corporate sector for conveying routine internal messages. There are not research based and take short time to prepare.

In the words of Ricks and Gow, “informal reports are commonly used vehicles to help managers in planning, organizing, staffing and controlling.”

Staff report, progress report, short audit reports etc. are examples of informal report. Features of informal report;
1. Used for conveying routine messages
2. Helps in day to day managerial functions.
3. Begin directly with conclusions and recommendations.
4. Length is short.
5. Introductory and prefatory parts are not required.
6. Usually follow preprinted form, letter formal or memo format.
7. Basic objectives are to inform and to recommend action.

The important or uses of informal report
Informal reports are used frequently to support routine business functions. It is very important for smooth operation of an organization. Uses of informal reports are as follow:
1. To inform weekly production
2. to record absenteeism.
3. Weekly or quarterly sales progress.
4. To inform consumers complaints.
5. To transmit data relating to labor turnover (By the supervisor to Human Resource Manager)
6. Performance report
7. To inform the effectiveness of promotional activities.

What do you mean by informal report?

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What is a formal or long report?

What is a formal or long report?

Hello dear friends here you will get what is a formal or long report? The feature of a formal report. The tone of a formal report is more analytical than informal reports. A formal report does not mean more formal language, it means the report is more detailed, more complex in nature.

Formal reports provide bases for decision making. It can be either informational or analytical. It includes not only presentation of data but also in depth analysis followed by recommendation.
Features of forma or long report: Major features or characteristics of a formal report are as follows:

1. Research based: Formal reports are prepared on the basis of findings of a research work.

2. In-depth analysis: The core concept of a formal report is in depth analysis of the topic or problem.

3. Long length: Usually length of a formal report is longer than that of other types of report.

4. Recommendations: Another unique feature of a formal report is, it provides recommendations for the solution of the problem.

5. Assist decision making: Last but not the least, formal reports help the management to take effective decisions on the basis of the findings and recommendations of the report.

What is a formal or long report?

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Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Different formats or styles of report writing

Different formats or styles of report writing

Hello dear friends here you will get the different formats or styles of report writing. Style or format of short report and long report differs considerably. Short reports are prepared by following fewer formalities, on the other hand long reports are formal in nature and prepared accordingly.

Format or Style of short report: Short reports can be prepared by following any of the following formats:
1. Preprinted form: It deals with routine information. In this format reports are given in printed forms. An individual need to ‘fill the blanks’ of the printed form to provide information.

2. Letter format: this format is also used for short reports; letter format is used for both internal and external reporting. It includes all the parts of a letter.

3. Memo format: short and informal reports prepared for internal use can follow the memo format. Common headings of a memo also used in memo reports. That is, To, from, Date and subject also used in a memo report.

Format for long report:Formal or long reports are prepared by maintain formalities. The logical and widely used format of a long report contains three parts:
For detailed discussion of the format of a long report see The structure of a formal or long report, or What are the elements of a formal report?

Different formats or styles of report writing

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What are the elements of a formal report?

What are the elements of a formal report?

Hello dear friends here you will get the structure of a formal or long report. What are the elements of a formal report?
A formal or long report has major three (3) parts:
A. Prefatory parts
B. Text parts
C. Supplementary parts

(A) Prefatory Parts
This is the introductory part of any formal report. As this part includes items like ‘table of content’, ‘executive summary’, ‘list of diagrams’, the it is easier on the part of the researcher to prepare this section after the text. A prefatory part includes the following items:
1. Cover: The cover page of a formal report usually includes the following things:
i. The title of the report
ii. Writer’s name
iii. Submission date
iv. Name, title and organization of the recipient.

2. Title fly: it is actually a formality and has no real importance to add a title fly. It is a sheet of paper with only the title of the report on it.

3. Title page: it includes all the items of the cover and placed before the letter of authorization.

4. Letter of authorization: it is the formal request for the preparation of the report. Researchers generally include this in their reports.

5. Letter of acceptance: It approves the assignment to conduct the research and preparation of the report.

6. Letter of transmittal: it conveys the report to the audience. It can be compared with the preface of a book. It appears right before the table of contents.

7. Table of contents: The headings used in the text of the report are the basis of table of contents. It is prepared after the completion of the text.

8. List of illustrations: Basically it is a part of table of contents, but to highlight the given figures and illustration it becomes a trend to prepare an extra list of illustration.

9. Synopsis or executive summary: An executive summary or synopsis is the brief overview of the whole report. It is a fully developed ‘mini’ version of the report. (Thill and Bovee 1996)

(B) Text of the report
The text of the report placed after the prefatory parts. Detailed discussion and interpretations are included in this section. All the collected information’s or data also presented in this section in a systematic manner. Text of the report contains the following elements.
1. Introduction: in this section by a general discussion researcher introduced the reader to the research problem, its importance, process of investigation etc. a good introduction should include the following points:

i. Definition and purpose of the problem.
ii. Scope of the report
iii. Backgrounds
iv. Data sources
v. Research method
vi. Limitations
vii. Definition of the technical terms.

2. Body of the text report: Detailed and analytical discussions of the problem are given in this section. The length of the body depends on the importance of the topic and demand of the audience.

3. Summary of the text report: The key findings of the report briefly discussed in the summary section.

4. Conclusion of the text report: this section is reconsidered as the mirror of the report. It should include:
i. Summary of the discussion.
ii. Opinion of the researcher.

5. Recommendation of the text report: Under this section researcher should clearly state the course of action that should be taken to solve the problem.

6. Notes of the text report: To prepare a report the researcher need to use findings of other people, quotations of different authors, previously collected data etc. but it is the legal obligation of the researcher to give others credit, for their work. Mentioning the original source under notes enhances the acceptance of the report.

(C) Supplementary parts
This is the last part of a report. It includes:
1. Appendix
2. Bibliography
3. Index

1. Appendix: It is a supplementary part which contains the important materials related to the report, but not included in the text. Because they are too lengthy or too bulky.

 2. Bibliography: all published and unpublished materials used in the report must be mentioned at the end of the report. This list of references known as bibliography.

3. Index: It is a list of names and subjects mentioned in the report. It is given in an alphabetical order. The page number of each item also mentioned.

The structure of a formal or long report.or What are the elements of a formal report?

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Monday, May 28, 2012

The steps to writing a report

The steps to report writing

Hello dear friends here you will get the steps to writing a report. Preparation of a report is a systematic and sequential task. Report writing has eight (8) sequential steps.
1. Define the problem: The first step of report writing is identifying the problem and the purpose of the study. The success of the report largely depends on the identification of purposes. That is the objective of the report must be determined before outlining the issues for investigation.

2. Outlining the issues for investigation: after determining the problem and purposes of the report writing issues or areas which will be investigated must be fixed. That is the whole problem should be subdivided to cover every important aspect. In other words possible causes of a problem should be clearly identified for investigation.

3. Prepare a work plan: The third step of report writing is to establish a work plan. This work plan will be prepared on the basis of the outlines. The work plan includes the following things:
i. Selection of sources of data.
ii. Selection of survey employees.
iii. Estimate cost.
iv. Selection of the format of the report.
V. fixation of time schedule for different activities.

4. Conduct research: in this step data are collected from both primary and secondary sources. Documentary evidences, observations, surveys etc. are the primary sources. On the other hand previously published books, periodicals and reports are considered as secondary sources. For collection of primary data a questionnaire can be developed.

5. Analyze data: After conducting the research the researcher need to analyze and interpret his/her findings with the help of statistical tools.

6. Draw conclusions: on the basis of evidences and analysis researches formulate a conclusion. Infect conclusion is the logical interpretation of the findings. It may be based on a combination of facts, value judgments, and assumptions.

7. Develop recommendations: Conclusions are opinions but recommendations are suggestions for action. Recommendations must offer real Advantages to the organizations and it should be financially feasible.

8. Writing the report: Finally the report should be written in such a manner which will be easily understandable and acceptable by the audience. The report should follow the ‘you-view’ that is it should be user oriented. The writer also should be careful about the margins and spaces.

The steps to report writing

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Monday, May 21, 2012

What are the qualities of a good report?

What are the qualities of a good report?

Hello dear friends here you will get What are the essential features of a good report? The qualities of a good report.

Complex problem can be solved by the recommendations of a report or routine functions can be smoothly completed with the help of reports. But the above functions can not be done efficiently unless the report is effective.

According to Thill and Bovee, “all good reports have at least three things in common. i. The information is accurate ii. The content shows the writer’s good judgment and iii. The format, style an organization responds to the reader’s need".

Essential features of a good report are as follows:
1. Accuracy: The first quality of an effective business report is accuracy. It should reveal the truth.

2. Good judgment: The investigator must use his or her best judgment to find the fact and in the preparation of the report.

3. Easy language: In preparing the report, easily understandable words should be used.

4. Responsive format: Appropriate format or style should be followed to reflect the reader’s needs. In making decisions about format and style following points should be considered.
5. Bias free: While making recommendations personal beliefs or any sort of biases should be avoided.

6. Clarity: Like other media of communication, reports also should maintain clarity.

7. Conciseness: Irrelevant and unnecessary information must be avoided.

What are the qualities of a good report?

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Tuesday, May 15, 2012

The Movement of a memo

The Movement of a memo

Hello dear friends here you will get The Movement of a memo. Memo is a means of written communication which is used within the organization. It can move either of the following three ways:
i. Downward
ii. Upward
iii. Horizontal

1. Downward: when memos carry information form managers to subordinates then it is termed as downward movement of memo.

Purposes of Downward:
i. Request for information
ii. Providing directions
iii. Announcing appointments
iv. Information regarding employees’ benefits.

Downward movement of memos can be depicted as follows:
Fig-3: Downward movement of memo.

2. Upward: when memos convey information or response of subordinates to superiors then it is called upward movement of memo.

Purposes of Upward:
i. Response to information previously asked
ii. Making request to superior
iii. Sending reports
3. Horizontal: when memos move to same level of employees then it is labeled as horizontal movement of memo. For example; if assistant manager of production department send a memo to assistant manager of finance department then it is known as horizontal or lateral movement of memo.

 Fig: Horizontal Movement of memo

 The Movement of a memo

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