Monday, November 28, 2011

What is Non-Verbal Communication?

What is Non-Verbal Communication?

What do you mean by Non-Verbal Communication?
Define Non-Verbal Communication.
What is Non-Verbal Communication?

Communication without using words called non-verbal communication. In this type of communication there are no use of either words or written message. Here messages conveyed through body movements, paralanguage or by facial expressions.

In the words of Thill and Bovee, “Non-Verbal communication is the process of communication without words.”

Lesikar and Pettit said that, “Non-Verbal communication means all communication that occurs without words.”

Define Non-Verbal Communication

(a) A pounding first on a table means anger.
(b) “A forefinger and a thumb touching to form a circle” means OK.
                                                                  (c) V = Victory sign

In short we can say in non-verbal communication we convey message through body movements, paralanguage, facial expressions and by different symbols.

What is application letter?

What is letter of employment?

What do you mean by application letter?
What do you mean by letter of employment?

application letter

A letter requesting or applying for a particular job in response to the advertisement of the employer is known as an application letter.

In other words, the letter through which a candidate expresses his/her interest for a particular job can be termed as an application letter.

In application letters the job seekers usually mention their personal qualities, work experience, details of educational qualifications, personal achievements, reasons for interest to the job etc.

letter of employment

Basic format of application letter:
Communication experts suggested that application letter should follow the AIDA plan (Thill and Bovee 1996; 384).

AIDA plan includes the following four sequential steps for an application letter.
Basic Format. AIDA

Purpose of a Business Letter

What is the purposes of a business letter?

The functions or purposes of a business letter
Business people have to communicate with the suppliers, debtors, creditors, customers and with other concerned parties to exchange information. Business letters are basically used to communicate with the above parties.

According to Ricks and Gow, “The primary purposes of business letters are to inform, instruct, request, inquire, remit, order, advice, correct and to question.”

Functions or purposes of business letter are as follows: 

Purpose of Business Letter

1. Convey information:
The basic purpose of any business letter is to convey information regarding business activities. Information can be transmitted through business letter to customers, suppliers, debtors, government authorities, financial institutions, bank and insurance companies and to any other parties related with the business.

2. Conclude transaction:
This is one of the specific purposes of business letter. To conclude in completed transactions business letters are frequently used.

3. Creation of demand:
Business letters especially circular letters used to create demand for new products. Circular letters can communicate many people in the same time.

4. Creation of goodwill:
In this electronic era messages can be sent within few seconds through electronic media but a well decorated business letter has its own importance in creation positive image of the company.

5. Expansion of business:
Through goodwill messages and through circular letters existing market can be expanded.

6. Establishment of relationship:
Another important purpose of business letter is, it helps to establish mutual relationship with the customers, suppliers and with the other interested parties.

7. Evidence:
Business letters are also used to maintain documentary evidence. Letters can be preserved for future reference.

8. To inquire:
A business concern not only sends messages but also receive information from the outside. To run the business any firm need different types of information from outside. Through business letters firms can inquire regarding necessary matters.

9. Placing order:
It is a very common purpose for using business letter. Both trading and manufacturing concerns need to place orders for finished goods or raw-materials to run the business.

10. Problem solving:
In the course of business, disputes and misunderstanding may arise. Business letters play vital role in solving such misunderstandings.

What is Business letter?

What is Business letter?

What do you mean by a Business letter?
A letter is a formal piece of writing used to exchange information of various types. It acts like an ambassador. Perhaps letter is the most widely used means of written communication.

Business Letter

In business world letters used for different purposes; like placing orders, making inquiries’, making credit request, requesting claims and adjustment etc.

Letters used for business purposes can be termed as business letter. Business letters convey messages regarding various business activates.

In the words of H. A. Murphy and others, “The medium used most often for written messages to persons outside your organization is the business letter.”

W. J. Weston said, “Business letter is the process of accomplishing business transaction in written form.”

Thus it can be stated that business letters are used to initiate, carry out and to conclude business transactions.

Types of communication network

Types of communication network

There are different types of network of communication. Communication Network means the channels by which information flows. Networks can be of two types:

(A) Formal Network and
(B) Informal Network.

(A) Formal Networks:
Formal network are used for task-related communication. These are generally vertical type and follow the authority chain. Widely used formal networks are as follows:
1. Chain network
2. Wheel network
3. All channel network.

Types communication

1. Chain Network:
The formal chain of command strictly followed in this type of network. Chain network can be depicted as follows:
                                                                 Fig-6: Chain Network
                                                                 (Source: S.P. Robbins)

2. Wheel Network:
Here leader plays the key role. Other members depend on the leader for group communication. It is as follows:
Fig-7: Wheel Network
(Source: S.P. Robbins)

All Channel Network:
This network allows all group members to communicate with each other freely. It can be shown by the following configuration:

 Fig-8: All Channel Network
(Source: S.P. Robbins)

(B) Informal Network:
Informal Networks do not follow authority chain. Here information can move to any direction freely. There are four informal networks:

1. Single strand chain.
2. Gossip chain.
3. Probability chain and
4. Cluster chain.

1. Single strand chain:
It indicates the passing of information by a long time. Here the 1st person tells to 2nd person who tells the message to 3rd person and so on. This process continues to the last receiver.

Fig-9: Single Strand Chain
(Source: R. Pal et al)

2. Gossip chain:
Here the leader is the pivotal person. All flows of information have to pass through the leader. This is also known as restricted network.

Fig-10: Gossip Chain Network
(Source: R. Pal et al)

3. Probability Chains:
This is also known as random chain. Here no specific rules are followed for transmitting information. At first a person transmits the information to any other person randomly, then in the similar way message is circulated randomly.

Fig-11: Probability Chain
(Source: R. Pal. Et al)

4. Cluster Chain:
Unlike random chain here at first a person passes the information to other selected persons. These persons again pass the information similarly to other selected persons.

Fig-12: Cluster Chain
(Source: R. Pal et)

These are the most popular information Networks.

Sunday, November 27, 2011

What are the limitations of communication model?

What are the limitations of communication model?

Through communication model plays a vital role in understanding the communication process, but it has some drawbacks or limitations. Limitations of the communication model are as follows:

Communication Model

1. Brief explanation:
The communication model is just a framework having brief explanation. Detail information cannot be achieved from it.

2. Lack of flexibility:
The basic communication models are not flexible in nature. But communication is a dynamic and changing thing. So sometimes it is difficult to cope-up with models.

3. Limited scope:
Most of the communication models are suitable for face to face or written communication. But models cannot describe the framework of telecommunication or modern means of communication.

Thursday, November 24, 2011

A good business letter

A good business letter

What are the essentials of an effective business letter?
Or, what factors should be considered to draft an effective business letter?
Or, discuss the qualities of a good business letter.

A business letter is like an ambassador which conveys message to the reader to achieve predetermined objectives. But due to poor planning messages may be wrongly interpreted by the reader and the objective may not be achieved. To write an effective business letter following factors should be considered:

A Business Letter

1. Well defined objectives:
There is an old saying ‘an aimless ship never able to reach the destination’. In case of business letter- a letter without specific objectives is meaningless. Thus to be effective business letters need to have well defined objective(s).

2. Clear concept:
If the writer does not have clear concept about the subject matter then it will be very difficult on his/her part to make the subject matter understandable to the reader.

3. Evaluation of reader’s position:
This is perhaps the most important thing that should be taken into consideration to draft an effective letter. The attitude, cultural and religious background, educational level, level of understanding etc. of the reader is likely to be different from those of the writer. That is why, to be successful the writer must try to get idea about the aforesaid aspects of the reader.

4. Accuracy/Correctness:
There is nothing painful than preparing letter with wrong information. It not only fail to achieve the goal but also detrimental for the goodwill of the firm. Thus correctness of the message must be ensured.

5. The ‘you’ view:
To ensure effective writing the writer should put himself/herself in the reader’s place. And then try to realize how the reader will respond to the letter.

6. Clarity:
Letter should be drafted clearly and there not be any sort of ambiguity.

7. Completeness:
It means messages should be presented in such a way that helps the reader to understand what the writer actually wanted to convey. Incomplete messages not only create confusion but also can damage the mutual relationship.

8. Conciseness:
Business people are very busy; they don’t want to be disturbed by unnecessary messages. That is why to be effective business letter should be concise.

9. Courteous:
To create a favorable atmosphere and to draw the interest of the reader the tone of the business letter must be courteous.

10. Tactful:
There is no need of tactfulness in drafting an order letter, but writer must be tactful in drafting persuasive, complaints and adjustment letters.

11. Persuasion:
To convince the reader or to motivate him/her to do some favor business letters must be written in a persuasive tone.

12. Promptness:
In case of reply letter response should be made immediately.

13. Positive approach:
The writer has to be optimistic regarding the achievement of the goal. Thus throughout the letter a positive tone must be present. Positive approach not only helps to convince the reader but also express the confidence of the writer.

14. Planed:
The writing letter is a conscious human activity, thus to be successful it should be planed.

15. Relevance:
Irrelevant sentence, not only occupy the space of the paper but also creates boredom in the mind of the reader.

16. Use of simple language:
To be effective business letter should avoid the use of difficult words and jargons. Simple and plain language should be used to clarify the message.
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